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  • follows the structure: (to) have + past participle

  • to have missed, to have written, to have worked

  • it can have the same kind of meaning as perfect or past tenses

  • after verbs such as claim, expect, hate, hope, like, love, prefer, pretend

  • refers to things that might have happened in the past


She claims to have been to 50 countries. (She claims she has been …)

I would prefer to have flown in the first class. (I prefer to fly the first class, but I did not.)

We are glad to have found new employees. (We are glad that we have found new employees.)

  • refers to something that will be completed at a point in the future

We hope to have passed all the exams by the end of February.

  • used in more formal or literary contexts

  • in a non-finite clause, a clause where a verb has no subject


To have raised all the kids without a partner was hard.

To have gone on that date would have been great, but not with the flu.  


COULD, WOULD, MIGHT, SHOULD, NEEDN’T + perfect infinitive

-       To talk about unreal situations or to express certainty


You shouldn’t have come there.

She should have arrived by now.

They should have called first.



-       Often after the verbs: assume, believe, consider, know, think, understand, say, suppose

-       To talk about the present situation, we use TO BE

Johnny is known to be a good trainer. (He is still a good trainer.)


-       To talk now about a previous state TO HAVE BEEN

Johnny is known to have been a good trainer. (He was good in the past. Maybe, he is retired or not a trainer anymore.)


(1)  Complete the sentences with verbs in the brackets. All will be in the past infinitive and some even in passive:

1)      Greta claimed ___ (travel) there ecologically saving the environment.

2)    The boss appeared ___ (anger) by the board’s decision.

3)    They seemed ___ (already, discuss) the issue before the meeting.

4)     Mickey pretended ___ (not, hear) the terrible news.

5)    We were fortunate ___ (witness) many shooting stars.

6)    My colleague regretted ___ (not, apply) for that new job.

7)    I was excited ___ (invite) to the conference as the main speaker.


(2) Complete the sentences with a present infinitive:

1.     I would like him ….. (smoke) in the house because now everything smells.

2.    He decided ….. (take part) in the yearly running competition because of his knee injury.

3.    We were instructed ….. (use) more sockets at the same time. 

4.    Women are empowered ….. (have) careers and families without being forced to choose. 

5.    Mr. Jaros demanded ….. (address) Marek but Mr. Jaros.


(3) Complete the sentences with a present negative infinitive:

1.      There was a terrible storm. We decided to be at home.

We decided

2.    I’d like my boyfriend to take me home. I don’t want to go with you.

I prefer

3.    Change the password every three months. It can be dangerous to keep the old one longer.

It’s crucial

(4)   Finish the sentences using the perfect infinitive

Xin Cao didn’t go on holiday last year and is tired now. He should…

I ate two slices of chocolate cake. I am too fat now I should not …

There is no coffee left. Someone must …

Did he get a new computer? I don’t know. He might …



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